Facing persecution in early modern England, some Catholics chose exile over conformity. Some even cast their lot with foreign monarchs rather than wait for their own rulers to have a change of heart. This book studies the relationship forged by English exiles and Philip II of Spain. It shows how these expatriates, known as the “Spanish Elizabethans,” used the most powerful tools at their disposal—paper, pens, and presses—to incite war against England during the “messianic” phase of Philip’s reign, from the years leading up to the Grand Armada until the king’s death in 1598.
Freddy Cristóbal Domínguez looks at English Catholic propaganda within its international and transnational contexts. He examines a range of long-neglected polemical texts, demonstrating their prominence during an important moment of early modern politico-religious strife and exploring the transnational dynamic of early modern polemics and the flexible rhetorical approaches required by exile. He concludes that while these exiles may have lived on the margins, their books were central to early modern Spanish politics and are key to understanding the broader narrative of the Counter-Reformation.
Deeply researched and highly original, Radicals in Exile makes an important contribution to the study of religious exile in early modern Europe. It will be welcomed by historians of early modern Iberian and English politics and religion as well as scholars of book history.
"Skillfully researched and written with enviable clarity, Freddy Dominguez's Radicals in Exile explores in detail a series of texts English Catholics wrote from Spain during the dramatic years of the 1580s and '90s. His readings of these works are original and illuminating, and they integrate this singular corpus into the wider religious and intellectual history of the period."
-James S. Amelang, author of Parallel Histories: Muslims and Jews in Inquisitorial Spain "This book puts the punch back into early modern religious polemic. Radical English Catholic exiles deftly bob and weave across the pages with hired-gun Protestant apologists. London swings at Madrid, Madrid jabs back at London, while Rome, Paris, and Antwerp stand by, eager to climb into the ring. The many contenders in this post-Reformation prizefight in print yield refreshingly unfamiliar viewpoints, internecine agendas, and a dynamic polyglot literature that has been too often overlooked."
-Earle Havens, Nancy H. Hall Curator of Rare Books & Manuscripts, Johns Hopkins University "Dominguez has provided a focused, informed, and lively account of the publishing activities of Elizabethan English Catholic exiles-and through these activities the exiles' deep involvement in Spanish political-ecclesiastical culture-during a critical moment in the history of Anglo-Spanish politics."
-Daniel Knapper, Reformation "Dominguez makes a clear and forceful argument for the impact of Spanish Elizabethan authors on Spanish politics during the final decades of Philip II's reign. Yet this book achieves something even more significant for those of us looking to the future of early modern studies. It demonstrates the benefits of transnationalism in furthering our understanding of Europe's religious and political environment."
-Kelsey J. Ihinger, Bulletin of the Comediantes "Scholarship on English Catholicism has started to take greater account of its broadly European and international dimensions, and Dominguez makes an important contribution to this line of scholarship. Radicals in Exile presents a convincing case for the central role of English Catholics in late sixteenth-century Spanish and wider European politics. It casts new light on English Catholics' links with Spain, and future scholarship will no doubt expand on these links, looking at connections beyond the printed word."
-Jonathan Roche, Journal of British Studies "Freddy Dominguez's important book expands our knowledge of English and Spanish Catholic print culture beyond immediate confessional considerations to illuminate instead the tangled polemics of secular rule and spiritual authority."
-Anne J. Cruz, Renaissance and Reformation "Dominguez's work, with its transnational perspective, rejection of confessional and nationalist narratives, and recovery of marginal voices, contributes positively to encouraging trends in modern Reformation scholarship."
-Alexander DeWitt SJ, Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu